Why all scientific theories are wrong

Part A. George Berkeley, the eighteenth century philosopher who discovered that the visible world is far simpler than scientists and philosophers think A1. Berkeley’s attack on thought, in 1710 In 1710, the Irish philosopher and scientist, George Berkeley, startled philosophers, scientists and the general public by telling them that the way philosophers and scientists think … Continue reading Why all scientific theories are wrong

The three-dimensional observable world

The past and the present The observable world has only three dimensions because it consists of pictures on the retina. No picture on a two dimensional surface has more than three dimensions. The pictures show recent, and less recent, events in the present. They may therefore be described as the past. The present consists of … Continue reading The three-dimensional observable world

A challenge to scientists and philosphers from 1710

In 1710, philosopher, George Berkeley, dismissed scientists and philosophers for making theories with concepts of their own invention and calling it science and philosophy. ‘What do we learn’ (from theories), he asked, ‘but our own ideas’. In a step designed to stop scientists and philosophers from making theories, Berkeley proposed a stricter likeness principle to … Continue reading A challenge to scientists and philosphers from 1710

Removing time, distance, speed and the speed of light from science

The speedless flow of data Fig 1 shows the writer standing between a pair of mirrors mounted on the north and south walls of a small room. In both mirrors I see a chain of continually changing images of the room. I know they are continually changing because if I move the images of me … Continue reading Removing time, distance, speed and the speed of light from science

Humpty Dumpty’s science

‘When I use a word’ Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, it means just what I choose it to mean – neither more nor less.’ ‘The question is’ said Alice, ‘whether you can make words mean so many different things.’ ‘The question is’ said Humpty Dumpty, ‘which is to be master – that’s … Continue reading Humpty Dumpty’s science

What we see and what scientists think we see

What we see On a clear dark night in winter, a person in the northern hemisphere sees a sky full of stars, slowly rotating round the pole star. As they rotate, the positions of all the stars, near and far, are continuosly refreshed, minute by minute. What scientists think we see Scientists tell us that … Continue reading What we see and what scientists think we see

The truth about distance and time

Scientists have two little friends, As pure as driven snow, But everywhere that distance goes, Time is sure to follow. Scientists tell you that it takes 640 years of time for light, travelling through space as a wave at the constant speed of light, to bring you the image you see on a starry night … Continue reading The truth about distance and time

The forgotten scientific revolution of 1710 and George Berkeley

Scientists have always used their own ideas to describe and explain their environment and from those descriptions and explanations they have constructed what they, and everybody else, calls science. In 1710, George Berkeley destroyed all that by the simple assertion that ideas have no role in science. Science can only be discovered from data, and … Continue reading The forgotten scientific revolution of 1710 and George Berkeley

How Einstein changed the scientific paradigm without realising it

The sorcerer of 1710 During my career as a physicist and teacher of physics, I scarcely realised there was a scientific paradigm to change. I just got on with it without thinking much about what ‘it’ is, In that, I don’t think I was different from my colleagues. When, in my retirement, I read the … Continue reading How Einstein changed the scientific paradigm without realising it

The End of Traditional Science

Traditional science ended in 1905 when Einstein’s relativity theory (but not Einstein) discovered (a) that clocks do not measure time, (b) that rulers do not measure distance, and (c) that speed should be redefined as the sine of an angle and the speed of light as the sine of a right angle. Those radical changes … Continue reading The End of Traditional Science